With the fall of the Roman Empire Eboli was first destroyed by Alaric in 410 AD and subsequently looted and destroyed by the Saracens in the ninth and tenth centuries. But the settlements on Montedoro survived until they came to these lands the Lombards. In the Middle Ages it was identified with the name Evoli (in the local dialect still persists form Jévule, clear legacy of the medieval name). The city in this period of history becomes a cornerstone of the defense system of the Principality of Salerno with its imposing Castle, built by Robert Guiscard, surrounded by walls and its five doors. Many were the restoration work of ancient churches and monuments implemented by the Normans, is an example still tangible the Abbey of St. Peter alli Marmi, now the convent of the Capuchin friars.

From 1811 to 1860 it was the capital of the district belonging to the District of Country of the Two Sicilies.

For the era of the struggle for the unification of Italy, in the historic center of the city a plaque remembers the hospitality that a local family granted to Giuseppe Garibaldi, (some scattered references also tell that just Eboli found shelter some members of expedition organized by Carlo Pisacane, survived the massacre of Sapri).

From 1860 to 1927, during the Kingdom of Italy was the capital of the district belonging to Campagna.

Fundamental was the remediation performed under fascism, which took away the marshes and swamps large areas of arable land, and that gave way to the final development of the town towards the plain, then that still had its center at the foot of the hills, site of a medieval village. The city is also known for being the site of a bellicose speech of Benito Mussolini shortly before the start of the War of Ethiopia (speech that the dictator himself recalls the beginning of the Italian countryside of Greece).

Eboli (Jevule ebolitano in dialect) is an Italian town of 39,264 inhabitants in the province of Salerno in Campania. Eboli is, the territory, one of the largest cities of Campania. Eboli is known mainly thanks to the book by Carlo Levi, Christ Stopped at Eboli, although the events of the work are not set in the municipality of Campania. In fact the author, confined in Basilicata because opponent of the Fascist regime, denounced the backwardness and isolation of populations Lucan.

Rich in archaeological remains found in different sites spread over the hills (there are many funerary finds dating Eneolithic and Bronze Age, found on Montedoro) in Eboli is consolidated in the centuries following the presence of Civilization Villanova. As of the end of the fifth century BC will be flourishing trade relations between the Etruscans to the north and the Greek south, so that Eboli became a center of reference for the tribes lucane hinterland, as witnessed by the numerous cemeteries scattered around the perimeter of the old town. With the arrival of the Romans and the construction of the Via Popilia (which linked Capua to Reggio Calabria) Eburum became an important and thriving craft and trade, as evidenced by the remains of an ancient artisan quarter (dated III-II century BC) dedicated to ceramic production, thanks to the presence of three Roman furnaces (one small, one medium and one large) located a few steps from the sanctuary of SS. Cosmas and Damian. Eboli da visitare agriturismo paestum. Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebae so he speaks Virgil in the Aeneid. The fourth century A.D. is the Roman villa discovered in Fontanelle, which is less than a kilometer from the center. A witness to the vitality of this center to the Romans conceded Eburum the legal status of Municipium, that its citizens were fledged Roman citizens but retained the right to govern itself by its own laws, as evidenced by the stele eburina (now preserved in the archaeological museum of the middle valley of the Sele). The pedestal of a statue to the time dedicated to the consul Titus Flavius Silvano, found in the base of the ancient church of St. Mary in Intra in the historic center, presents below an inscription in Latin (a Latin not perfect, or maybe already mixed with elements of vernacular) that defines “Eburum, Roman municipium”.